Reversing Pinned Android Certificates
A couple of days ago, I wanted to see all the requests a new app I had installed was making. After firing up mitmproxy to proxy requests coming in from my android device, I quickly realized that the application in question had implemented SSL certificate pinning.
Many applications implement certificate pinning as an extra security layer to protect their users from man-in-the-middle attacks. Certificate pinning allows app developers to specify a list of certificates and ertificate authorities as valid thus bypassing Android’s default certificate store for validation. It also has the added advantage of preventing snoopers from seeing requests made to certain private APIs without decrypting/ reverse engineering the application.
There are many online tutorials out there on how to reverse engineer android applications to remove the pinned certificate, many of them however go deeper into steps to remove certificate pinning instead of following the simple steps below.
Install the following tools, if you dont have them already.
Copy the apk from your phone to a directory on your computer with adb
adb pull /data/app/com.example.example/example.apk example.apk
Decode the apk to the current directory using apktool
apktool d example.apk
Edit the application element in AndroidManifest.xml to include android:networkSecurityConfig=”@xml/network_security_config
Create or edit the file with path res/xml/network_security_config.xml to look as follows
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <network-security-config> <base-config> <trust-anchors> <certificates src="system" /> <certificates src="user" /> </trust-anchors> </base-config> </network-security-config>
Rebuild the apk to include the changes you made
apktool b app -o example-patched.jar
Sign the newly patched apk with the uber-apk-signer, you will not be able to install the new apk on your device without signing it.
java -jar uber-apk-signer-1.1.0.jar --apks example-patched.apk
Install the signed apk on your device
adb install example-signed.apk
Configure your device to use your mitmproxy of choice and proxy away.